Administrative rule R657-9
Taking waterfowl, common snipe and coot
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KEY: wildlife, birds, migratory birds, waterfowl
Date of Enactment or Last Substantive Amendment: August 10, 2020
Notice of Continuation: August 1, 2016
Authorizing, and Implemented or Interpreted law: 23-14-19; 23-14-18; 50 CFR part 20
R657-9-1. Purpose and Authority.
(1) Under authority of Sections 23-14-18 and 23-14-19, and in accordance with 50 CFR 20, 50 CFR 32.64 and 50 CFR 27.21, 2004 edition, which is incorporated by reference, the Wildlife Board has established this rule for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe, and coot.
(2) Specific dates, areas, limits, requirements and other administrative details which may change annually are published in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
(1) Terms used in this rule are defined in Section 23-13-2.
(2) In addition:
(a) "Bait" means shelled, shucked or unshucked corn, wheat or other grain, salt or other feed that lures, attracts or entices birds.
(b) "Baiting" means the direct or indirect placing, exposing, depositing, distributing, or scattering of salt, grain, or other feed that could serve as a lure or attraction for migratory games birds to, on, or over any areas where hunters are attempting to take them.
(c) "CFR" means the Code of Federal Regulations.
(d) "Daily Bag Limit" means the maximum number of migratory game birds of a single species or combination (aggregate) of species permitted to be taken by one person in any one day during the open season in any one specified geographic area for which a daily bag limit is prescribed.
(e) "Dark geese" means the following species: cackling, Canada, white-fronted and brant.
(f) "Light geese" means the following species: snow, blue and Ross'.
(g) "Live decoys" means tame or captive ducks, geese or other live birds.
(h) "Off-highway vehicle" means any motor vehicle designed for or capable of travel over unimproved terrain.
(i) "Permanent waterfowl blind" means any waterfowl blind that is left unattended overnight and that is not a portable structure capable of immediate relocation.
(j) "Possession limit" the maximum number of migratory game birds of a single species or a combination of species permitted to be possessed by any one person when lawfully taken in the United States in any one specified geographic area for which a possession limit is prescribed.
(k) "Sinkbox" means any type of low floating device, having a depression, affording the hunter a means of concealment beneath the surface of the water.
(l) "Transport" means to ship, export, import or receive or deliver for shipment.
(m) "Waterfowl" means ducks, mergansers, geese, brant and swans.
(n) "Waterfowl blind" means any manufactured place of concealment, including boats, rafts, tents, excavated pits, or similar structures, which have been designed to partially or completely conceal a person while hunting waterfowl.
R657-9-3. Stamp Requirements.
(1) Any person 16 years of age or older may not hunt waterfowl without first obtaining a federal migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp, and having the stamp in possession.
(2) The stamp must be validated by the hunter's signature in ink across the face of the stamp.
(3) A federal migratory bird hunting and conservation stamp is not required for any person under the age of 16.
R657-9-4. Permit Applications for Swan.
(1) Swan permits will be issued pursuant to R657-62-22.
R657-9-5. Tagging Swans.
(1)(a) A person that takes a swan must tag the carcass, as provided in Section 23-20-30, immediately upon taking possession of the carcass and reaching a location listed below that is closest to the place where the carcass was first retrieved by the hunter, another person, or a dog:
(i) the blind or fixed location in the field where the person taking the swan was set up and from where they shot at the swan;
(ii) a vessel available to the person; or
(iii) the first area of land free from standing water.
(b) “Vessel” means, for the purposes of this subsection, any type of watercraft used or capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.
(2) To tag a carcass, a person shall:
(a) completely detach the tag from the license or permit;
(b) completely remove the appropriate notches to correspond with the date the animal was taken; and
(c) attach the tag to the carcass so that the tag remains securely fastened and visible.
(3) A person may not:
(a) remove more than one notch indicating the date; or
(b) tag more than one carcass using the same tag.
(4) A person may not hunt or pursue a swan after:
(a) shooting and retrieving the swan;
(b) the tag is detached from the permit; or
(c) any of the notches have been removed from the tag.
R657-9-6. Return of Swan Harvest and Hunt Information.
(1) Swan permit holders who do not hunt or are unsuccessful in taking a swan must respond to the swan questionnaire through the division's Internet address, or by telephone, within 30 calendar days of the conclusion of the prescribed swan hunting season.
(2) Within three days of harvest, swan permit holders successful in taking a swan must personally present the swan or its head for measurement to the division or the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge and further provide all harvest information requested by the division or Refuge.
(3) Hunters who fail to comply with the requirements of Subsections (1) or (2) shall be ineligible to:
(a) obtain a swan permit the following season; and
(b) obtain a swan permit after the first season of ineligibility until the swan orientation course is retaken.
(4) late swan questionnaires may be accepted pursuant to Rule R657-42-9(3). Swan permit holders are still required to present the swan or its head for measurement to a division office.
R657-9-7. Authorized Weapons.
(1) Migratory game birds may be taken with a shotgun, crossbow or archery tackle, including a draw lock.
(2) Migratory game birds may not be taken with a trap, snare, net, rifle, pistol, swivel gun, shotgun larger than 10 gauge, punt gun, battery gun, machine gun, fish hook, poison, drug, explosive or stupefying substance.
(3) Migratory game birds may not be taken with a shotgun of any description capable of holding more than three shells, unless it is plugged with a one-piece filler, incapable of removal without disassembling the gun, so its total capacity does not exceed three shells, except as authorized by the Wildlife Board and specified in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking Waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and Coot.
R657-9-8. Nontoxic Shot.
(1) Only nontoxic shot may be in possession or used while hunting waterfowl and coot.
(2) A person may not possess or use lead shot:
(a) while hunting waterfowl or coot in any area of the state;
(b) on federal refuges;
(c) on the following waterfowl management areas: Bicknell Bottoms, Blue Lake, Brown's Park, Clear Lake, Desert Lake, Farmington Bay, Harold S. Crane, Howard Slough, Locomotive Springs, Manti Meadow, Mills Meadows, Ogden Bay, Powell Slough, Public Shooting Grounds, Salt Creek, Stewart's Lake, Timpie Springs; or
(d) on the Scott M. Matheson or Utah Lake wetland preserve.
R657-9-9. Use of Weapons on State Waterfowl Management Areas.
(1) A person may not discharge a firearm, crossbow, or archery tackle on the Bicknell Bottoms, Blue Lake, Brown's Park, Clear Lake, Desert Lake, Farmington Bay, Harold S. Crane, Howard Slough, Locomotive Springs, Mills Meadows, Ogden Bay, Powell Slough, Public Shooting Grounds, Salt Creek, Stewart's Lake, Timpie Springs and Topaz Waterfowl Management areas during any time of the year, except:
(a) the use of authorized weapons as provided in Utah Admin. Code R657-9-7 during waterfowl hunting seasons for lawful hunting activities;
(b) as otherwise authorized by the Division in special use permit, certificate of registration, administrative rule, proclamation, or order of the Wildlife Board; or
(c) for lawful purposes of self-defense.
R657-9-10. Airborne, Terrestrial, and Aquatic Vehicles.
Migratory game birds may not be taken:
(1) from or by means of any motorboat or other craft having a motor attached, or sailboat unless the motor has been completely shut off or sails furled and its progress has ceased: provided, that a craft under power may be used to retrieve dead or crippled birds; however, crippled birds may not be shot from such craft under power; or
(2) by means or aid of any motor driven land, water or air conveyance, or any sailboat used for the purpose of or resulting in the concentrating, driving, rallying or stirring up of any migratory bird.
(1) Air-thrust or air-propelled boats and personal watercraft are not allowed in designated parts of the following areas for the purposes of waterfowl hunting:
(a) Box Elder County: Box Elder Lake, Bear River, that part of Harold S. Crane within one-half mile of all dikes and levees, Locomotive Springs, Public Shooting Grounds and Salt Creek, that part of Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge north of "D" line dike, and outside Units 1, 3, 4 and 5 as posted.
(b) Daggett County: Brown's Park
(c) Davis County: Howard Slough, Ogden Bay and Farmington Bay within diked units or as posted
(d) Emery County: Desert Lake
(e) Millard County: Clear Lake, Topaz Slough
(f) Tooele County: Timpie Springs
(g) Uintah County: Stewart's Lake
(h) Utah County: Powell Slough
(i) Wayne County: Bicknell Bottoms
(j) Weber County: Ogden Bay within diked units or as posted and the portion of Harold S. Crane Waterfowl Management Area that falls within the county line.
(2) "Personal watercraft" means a motorboat that is:
(a) less than 16 feet in length;
(b) propelled by a water jet pump; and
(c) designed to be operated by a person sitting, standing or kneeling on the vessel, rather than sitting or standing inside the vessel.
R657-9-12. Motorized Vehicle Access.
(1) "Motorized vehicle" for the purposes of this section means a vehicle that is self-propelled or possesses the ability to be self-propelled. This does not include vehicles moved solely by human power, motorized wheelchairs, or an electric personal assisted mobility device.
(2) Motorized vehicle travel is restricted to county roads, improved roads and parking areas.
(3) Off-highway vehicles are not permitted on state waterfowl management areas, except as marked and posted open.
(4) Off-highway vehicles are not permitted on Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge.
(5) Motorized boat use is restricted on waterfowl management areas as specified in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
(6) Electric-assisted bicycles propelled in part by electrical assistance are only permitted on state waterfowl management areas if they meet the Class 1 definition provided in Utah Code § 41-6a-102(8) and (17).
A person may not take migratory game birds from or by means, aid, or use of any type of low floating device, having a depression affording the hunter a means of concealment beneath the surface of the water.
R657-9-14. Live Decoys.
A person may not take migratory game birds with the use of live birds as decoys or from an area where tame or captive live ducks or geese are present unless such birds are and have been, for a period of ten consecutive days prior to such taking, confined within an enclosure which substantially reduces the audibility of their calls and totally conceals such birds from the sight of wild migratory waterfowl.
R657-9-15. Amplified Bird Calls.
A person may not use recorded or electrically amplified bird calls or sounds or recorded or electronically amplified imitations of bird calls or sounds except as authorized by the Wildlife Board and specified in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
(1) A person may not take migratory game birds by the aid of baiting, or on or over any baited area where a person knows or reasonably should know that the area is or has been baited. This section does not prohibit:
(a) the taking of any migratory game bird on or over the following lands or areas that are not otherwise baited areas:
(i) standing crops or flooded standing crops (including aquatics), standing, flooded or manipulated natural vegetation, flooded harvested croplands, or lands or areas where seeds or grains have been scattered solely as the result of a normal agricultural planting, harvesting, post-harvest manipulation or normal soil stabilization practice;
(ii) from a blind or other place of concealment camouflaged with natural vegetation;
(iii) from a blind or other place of concealment camouflaged with vegetation from agricultural crops, as long as such camouflaging does not result in the exposing, depositing, distributing or scattering of grain or other feed; or
(iv) standing or flooded standing agricultural crops where grain is inadvertently scattered solely as a result of a hunter entering or exiting a hunting area, placing decoys or retrieving downed birds.
(b) The taking of any migratory game bird, except waterfowl, coots and cranes, is legal on or over lands or areas that are not otherwise baited areas, and where grain or other feed has been distributed or scattered solely as the result of manipulation of an agricultural crop or other feed on the land where grown or solely as the result of a normal agricultural operation.
R657-9-17. Possession During Closed Season.
No person shall possess any freshly killed migratory game birds during the closed season.
R657-9-18. Live Birds.
(1) Every migratory game bird wounded by hunting and reduced to possession by the hunter shall be immediately killed and become part of the daily bag limit.
(2) No person shall at any time, or by any means possess or transport live migratory game birds.
R657-9-19. Waste of Migratory Game Birds.
(1) A person may not waste or permit to be wasted or spoiled any protected wildlife or any part of them.
(2) No person shall kill or cripple any migratory game bird pursuant to this rule without making a reasonable effort to immediately retrieve the bird and include it in that person's daily bag limit.
R657-9-20. Termination of Possession.
Subject to all other requirements of this part, the possession of birds taken by any hunter shall be deemed to have ceased when the birds have been delivered by the hunter to another person as a gift; to a post office, a common carrier, or a migratory bird preservation facility and consigned for transport by the Postal Service or common carrier to some person other than the hunter.
R657-9-21. Tagging Requirement.
(1) No person shall put or leave any migratory game bird at any place other than at that person's personal abode, or in the custody of another person for picking, cleaning, processing, shipping, transporting or storing, including temporary storage, or for the purpose of having taxidermy services performed unless there is attached to the birds a disposal receipt, donation receipt or transportation slip signed by the hunter stating the hunter's address, the total number and species of birds, the date such birds were killed and the Utah hunting license number under which they were taken.
(2) Migratory game birds being transported in any vehicle as the personal baggage of the possessor shall not be considered as being in storage or temporary storage.
R657-9-22. Donation or Gift.
No person may receive, possess or give to another, any freshly killed migratory game birds as a gift, except at the personal abodes of the donor or donee, unless such birds have a tag attached, signed by the hunter who took the birds, stating such hunter's address, the total number and species of birds taken, the date such birds were taken and the Utah hunting license number under which taken.
R657-9-23. Custody of Birds of Another.
No person may receive or have in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person unless such birds are tagged as required by Section R657-9-21.
R657-9-24. Species Identification Requirement.
No person shall transport within the United States any migratory game birds unless the head or one fully feathered wing remains attached to each bird while being transported from the place where taken until they have arrived at the personal abode of the possessor or a migratory bird preservation facility.
R657-9-25. Marking Package or Container.
(1) No person shall transport by the Postal Service or a common carrier migratory game birds unless the package or container in which such birds are transported has the name and address of the shipper and the consignee and an accurate statement of the numbers and kinds of species of birds contained therein clearly and conspicuously marked on the outside thereof.
(2) A Utah shipping permit obtained from the division must accompany each package shipped within or from Utah.
R657-9-26. Migratory Bird Preservation Facilities.
(1) Migratory bird preservation facility means:
(i) Any person who, at their residence or place of business and for hire or other consideration; or
(ii) Any taxidermist, cold-storage facility or locker plant which, for hire or other consideration; or
(iii) Any hunting club which, in the normal course of operations; receives, possesses, or has in custody any migratory game birds belonging to another person for purposes of picking, cleaning, freezing, processing, storage or shipment.
(2) No migratory bird preservation facility shall:
(a) receive or have in custody any migratory game bird unless accurate records are maintained that can identify each bird received by, or in the custody of, the facility by the name of the person from whom the bird was obtained, and show:
(i) the number of each species;
(ii) the location where taken;
(iii) the date such birds were received;
(iv) the name and address of the person from whom such birds were received;
(v) the date such birds were disposed of; and
(vi) the name and address of the person to whom such birds were delivered; or
(b) destroy any records required to be maintained under this section for a period of one year following the last entry on record.
(3) Record keeping as required by this section will not be necessary at hunting clubs that do not fully process migratory birds by removal of the head and wings.
(4) No migratory bird preservation facility shall prevent any person authorized to enforce this part from entering such facilities at all reasonable hours and inspecting the records and the premises where such operations are being carried out.
A person may not:
(1) import migratory game birds belonging to another person; or
(2) import migratory game birds in excess of the following importation limits:
(a) From any country except Canada and Mexico, during any one calendar week beginning on Sunday, not to exceed 10 ducks, singly or in the aggregate of all species, and five geese including brant, singly or in the aggregate of all species;
(b) From Canada, not to exceed the maximum number to be exported by Canadian authorities;
(c) From Mexico, not to exceed the maximum number permitted by Mexican authorities in any one day: provided that if the importer has his Mexican hunting permit date-stamped by appropriate Mexican wildlife authorities on the first day he hunts in Mexico, he may import the applicable Mexican possession limit corresponding to the days actually hunted during that particular trip.
R657-9-28. Use of Dogs.
(1) An individual may not use or permit a dog to harass, pursue, or take protected wildlife unless otherwise allowed for in the Wildlife Code, administrative rules issued under Wildlife Code, or a guidebook of the Wildlife Board.
(2) Dogs may be used to locate and retrieve turkey during open turkey hunting seasons.
(3) Dogs are generally allowed on state wildlife management and waterfowl management areas, subject to the following conditions.
(a) Dogs are not allowed on the following state wildlife management areas and waterfowl management areas between March 10 and August 31 annually or as posted by the Division:
(ii) Bear River Trenton Property Parcel;
(iii) Bicknell Bottoms;
(iv) Blue Lake;
(v) Browns Park;
(vi) Bud Phelps;
(vii) Clear Lake;
(viii) Desert Lake;
(ix) Farmington Bay;
(x) Harold S. Crane;
(xi) Hatt's Ranch;
(xii) Howard Slough;
(xiv) James Walter Fitzgerald;
(xv) Kevin Conway;
(xvi) Locomotive Springs;
(xvii) Manti Meadows;
(xviii) Mills Meadows;
(xix) Montes Creek;
(xxi) Ogden Bay;
(xxiv) Public Shooting Grounds;
(xxv) Redmond Marsh;
(xxviii) Salt Creek;
(xxix) Scott M. Matheson Wetland Preserve;
(xxx) Steward Lake;
(xxxi) Timpie Springs;
(xxxii) Topaz Slough;
(xxxiii) Vernal; and
(xxxiv) Willard Bay.
(b) The Division may establish special restrictions for Division-managed properties, such as on-leash requirements and temporary or locational closures for dogs, and post them at specific Division properties and at Regional offices;
(c) Organized events or group gatherings of twenty-five (25) or more individuals that involve the use of dogs, such as dog training or trials, that occur on Division properties may require a special use permit as described in R657-28; and
(d) Dog training may be allowed in designated areas on Lee Kay Center and Willard Bay WMA by the Division without a special use permit.
R657-9-29. Season Dates and Bag and Possession Limits.
(1) Season dates and bag and possession limits are specified in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
(2) A youth duck hunting day may be allowed for any person 17 years of age or younger on July 31st of the year in which the youth hunting day is held, as provided in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
R657-9-30. Rest Areas and No Shooting Areas.
(1) A person may only access and use state waterfowl management areas in accordance with state and federal law, state administrative code, and proclamations of the Wildlife Board.
(2)(a) The division may establish portions of state waterfowl management areas as "rest areas" for wildlife that are closed to the public and trespass of any kind is prohibited.
(b) In addition to any areas identified in the proclamation of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe, and coot, the following areas are designated as rest areas:
(i) That portion of Clear Lake Waterfowl Management Area known as Spring Lake;
(ii) That portion of Desert Lake Waterfowl Management Area known as Desert Lake;
(iii) That portion of Public Shooting Grounds Waterfowl Management Area that lies above and adjacent to the Hull Lake Diversion Dike known as Duck Lake;
(iv) That portion of Salt Creek Waterfowl Management Area known as Rest Lake;
(v) That portion of Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area that lies in the northwest quarter of unit one; and
(iv) That portion of Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area known as North Bachman.
(c) Maps of all rest areas will be available at division offices, on the division's website, and to the extent necessary, marked with signage at each rest area.
(3)(a) The division may establish portions of state waterfowl management areas as "No Shooting Areas" where the discharge of weapons for the purposes of hunting is prohibited.
(b) No Shooting Areas remain open to the public for other lawful activities.
(c) In addition to any areas identified in the proclamation of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe, and coot, the following areas are No Shooting Areas:
(i) All of Antelope Island, including all areas within 600 feet of the upland vegetative line or other clearly defined high water mark;
(ii) Within 600 feet of the north and south side of the center line of Antelope Island causeway;
(iii) Within 600 feet of all structures found at Brown's Park Waterfowl Management Area;
(iv) The following portions of Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area:
(A) within 600 feet of the Headquarters;
(B) within 600 feet of dikes and roads accessible by motorized vehicles; and
(C) within the area designated as the Learning Center.
(v) Within 600 feet of the headquarters area of Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area;
(vi) Within the boundaries of all State Parks except those designated open by appropriate signage as provided in Rule R651-614-4;
(vii) Within 1/3 of a mile of the Great Salt Lake Marina;
(viii) Below the high-water mark of Gunnison Bend Reservoir and its inflow upstream to the Southerland Bridge, Millard County;
(xi) All property within the boundary of the Salt Lake International Airport; and
(x) All property within the boundaries of federal migratory bird refuges, unless hunting waterfowl specifically authorized by the federal government.
(4) The division reserves the right to manage division lands and regulate their use consistent with Utah Code § 23-21-7 and Utah Administrative Code R657-28.
R657-9-31. Shooting Hours.
(1) A person may not hunt, pursue, or take wildlife, or discharge any firearm or archery tackle on state-owned lands adjacent to the Great Salt Lake, on division-controlled waterfowl management areas, or on federal refuges between official sunset and one-half hour before official sunrise.
(2) Legal shooting hours for taking or attempting to take waterfowl, Wilson's snipe, and coot are provided in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
(1) Falconers must obtain a valid hunting or combination license, a federal migratory bird stamp and a falconry certificate of registration to hunt waterfowl.
(2) Areas open and bag and possession limits for falconry are specified in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot.
R657-9-33. Migratory Game Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP).
(1) A person must obtain an annual Migratory Game Bird Harvest Information Program (HIP) registration number to hunt migratory game birds.
(2)(a) A person must call the telephone number published in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot, or register online at the address published in the guidebook of the Wildlife Board for taking waterfowl, Wilson's snipe and coot to obtain their HIP registration number.
(b) A person must write their HIP registration number on their current year's hunting license.
(3) Any person obtaining a HIP registration number will be required to provide their:
(a) hunting license number;
(b) hunting license type;
(e) phone number;
(f) birth date; and
(g) information about the previous year's migratory bird hunts.
(4) Lifetime license holders will receive a sticker every three years from the division to write their HIP number on and place on their lifetime license card.
(5) Any person hunting migratory birds will be required, while in the field, to prove that they have registered and provided information for the HIP program.
R657-9-34. Waterfowl Blinds on Waterfowl Management Areas
(1) Waterfowl blinds on division waterfowl management areas may be constructed or used as provided in Subsection (a) through Subsection (e).
(a) Waterfowl blinds may not be left unattended overnight, except for blinds constructed entirely of non-woody, vegetative materials that naturally occur where the blind is located.
(b) Trees and shrubs on waterfowl management areas that are live or dead standing may not be cut or damaged except as expressly authorized in writing by the division.
(c) Excavating soil or rock on waterfowl management areas above or below water surface is strictly prohibited, except as expressly authorized in writing by the division.
(d) Rock and soil material may not be transported to waterfowl management areas for purposes of constructing a blind.
(e) Waterfowl blinds may not be constructed or used in any area or manner, which obstructs vehicular or pedestrian travel on dikes.
(2) The restrictions set forth in Subsection (1)(a) through Subsection (1)(c) do not apply to the following waterfowl management areas:
(a) Farmington Bay Waterfowl Management Area -West and North of Unit 1, Turpin Unit, and Doug Miller Unit,.
(b) Howard Slough Waterfowl Management Area -West and South of the exterior dike separating the waterfowl management area's fresh water impoundments from the Great Salt Lake.
(c) Ogden Bay Waterfowl Management Area - West of Unit 1, Unit 2, and Unit 3.
(d) Harold Crane Waterfowl Management Area - one half mile North and West of the exterior dike separating the waterfowl management area's fresh water impoundments from Willard Spur.
(3) Waterfowl blinds constructed or maintained on waterfowl management areas in violation of this section may be removed or destroyed by the division without notice.
(4) Any unoccupied, permanent waterfowl blind located on state land open to public access for hunting may be used by any person without priority to the person that constructed the blind. It being the intent of this rule to make such blinds available to any person on a first-come, first-serve basis.
(5) Waterfowl blinds or decoys cannot be left unattended overnight on state land open to public access for hunting in an effort to reserve the particular location where the blinds or decoys are placed.