The Colorado River cutthroat trout is a subspecies of trout endemic to the Green and Colorado River drainages. (“Endemic” means that the species is not found anywhere else in the world.) The historic range of the trout has declined over the years due to a handful of factors, including:
- Hybridization (cross-breeding with other fish species)
- Competition with non-native species
- Human influences such as water development and land-use changes
In the 1990s, declines in the trout’s historic range led certain groups to petition that it be listed for protection under the Endangered Species Act. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has since determined that the fish is not warranted for listing, the court battles to overturn that decision continue.
One of the main points of contention in the lawsuits is the extent of decline in the trout’s historic range. Since the first petition for listing was received, the states of Utah, Wyoming and Colorado — as well as federal land management agencies — have undertaken an aggressive program of restoring Colorado River cutthroat trout.
To date, these actions have convinced the courts that the subspecies is not currently in danger of going extinct in any part of its range, and that the work being done will continue regardless of the legal status of the Colorado River cutthroat trout.
However, the one area of the historic range that is still under-represented in the restoration activities is southeastern Utah. To increase populations in this part of the state, the Utah Division of Wildlife Resources has been trying to identify a pure population of Colorado River cutthroat trout and to develop a broodstock which could be used to re-populate restored areas. Those obstacles have finally been overcome, and we are ready to move to the restoration phase.
For our first restoration project, we identified Ferron Creek as the best location. Ferron Creek, located west of the town of Ferron, was selected for a number of reasons:
- The stream is located almost entirely on the Manti-La Sal Forest, so impacts to local landowners could be minimized.
- The broodstock lake for the Colorado River cutthroat trout is situated at the headwaters of the stream, so there is easy access to the fish.
- Finally, Ferron Creek and its tributaries comprise about 47 miles of stream. A project this large — on interconnected streams — creates what is known as a “metapopulation.” Simply put, this is a population that is large enough to be self-sustaining and is not likely to be eliminated by a local catastrophe like a forest fire.
The project has been in the planning phase for a while. We have consulted with the U.S. Forest Service, Emery County Commissioners, local water users in the Ferron Creek drainage, and cattle grazers in the affected allotments to make sure that everyone is aware of the project and that there would be minimal impacts to any private interest. Because the upper end of the drainage is located in Sanpete County, we will soon meet with the county commission there to identify any of their concerns.
There are a number of small reservoirs in the drainage which may be converted to Colorado River cutthroat trout, or have sterile fish stocked to prevent hybridization. However, regardless of whether Colorado River cutthroat trout are stocked into these reservoirs, the DWR does not anticipate the need for special regulations to protect the fish in these waters — except for Duck Fork Reservoir — which will retain its status as the broodstock lake.
The conversion of Ferron Creek drainage to Colorado River cutthroat trout is a huge project that will take a minimum of four or five years to complete. We hope to start in the fall of 2011 by chemically treating Ferron Reservoir to remove the non-native brook trout and rainbow trout. A second treatment will take place in early 2012 to assure a complete removal of non-natives. Right after the second treatment, the reservoir will be restocked with sterile rainbow trout, Colorado River cutthroat trout and, perhaps, sterile brook trout.
We will then proceed to treat Ferron Creek and its tributaries and other small reservoirs in phases starting at the top of the drainage and working our way down towards Millsite Reservoir. Temporary barriers will be constructed at key areas to prevent re-invasion of non-natives into treated sections as we move downstream. Willow Lake and Wrigley Springs Reservoir were switched to sterile rainbow trout a couple of years ago and will not require treatment. There also will not be a need to treat Millsite Reservoir because a permanent barrier will be placed upstream of the reservoir to prevent migration of non-native fish from the reservoir into the stream.
Each section of the project will be treated at least twice then restocked with pure Colorado River cutthroat trout, and perhaps tiger trout. Because large areas of the stream are inaccessible except by foot, we may not need to have special regulations to protect cutthroat trout throughout the entire stream, but they may be necessary on more accessible areas. This will be determined through consultation with the public as the project proceeds.
The introduction of a species that has been petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act into an area is a scary thing for local governments, water users and cattle grazers because of the possible impacts that might arise if the species is eventually warranted for listing. However, it is precisely projects like this that may help prevent listing. The Utah Division of Wildlife Resources recognizes the concerns of the local users, and greatly appreciates the cooperation and support of all of our partners in this project to restore the native Colorado River cutthroat trout to Ferron Creek.