West Nile virus in Utah
West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus, or arthropod-borne virus, of the flavivirus family. West Nile virus is one of many mosquito-borne viral infections. Several similar types of mosquito-borne viral infections that cause encephalitis, such as St. Louis and Western Equine Encephalitis, have been present in the United States for some time.
Map WNV in Utah (2005)
- WNV in humans: Utah Dept. of Health
- WNV in domestic animals: Utah Dept. of Agriculture & Food
- WNV in mosquitoes: Utah Mosquito Abatement Dist.
In most cases, WNV produces few or no symptoms. However, in some cases, West Nile viral infection may cause more severe symptoms including encephalitis, or swelling of the brain, which can be fatal. Persons over the age of 50 may be at an increased risk of more severe forms of West Nile virus infection.
How is the virus transmitted?
West Nile Virus is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes of the Culex family during normal bloodfeeding. Some species in this family are ornithophilic, i.e. feed primarily on birds, and birds act as reservoirs or amplifying hosts of West Nile virus. Though many species of birds are known to contract WNV, species in the Corvid family (crows, ravens, and jays) are more susceptible to the disease and are therefore useful geographic detectors of West Nile virus.
Mammals, including humans and horses, are considered incidental hosts and are therefore viral 'dead ends.' Humans are most likely to acquire WNV from an infected mosquito, and the virus cannot be transmitted through person-to-person contact. Other mammals, such as horses, do not maintain a high enough level of the virus in the blood stream to transmit the virus to humans.
How can I protect myself and my family from WNV infection?
Prevention is still the best method of avoiding West Nile virus infection. West Nile virus is primarily spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Protect yourself and your family against mosquito bites. It is important to follow these recommended guidelines:
Use mosquito repellents with DEET (30 or 35 percent concentration for adults and less than 10 percent for children) or Picaridin, especially from dusk to dawn. Mosquitoes that carry West Nile virus are most active during this time.
Make sure window screens and screened door are in good repair. Small holes will allow mosquitoes to enter.
Change water regularly (every two or three days) in birdbaths, outdoor pet dishes, etc.
Aerate ornamental ponds or contact your local mosquito abatement district regarding treatment options.
Use mosquito repellent according to label instructions.
Make sure window screens and screened doors are in good repair. Small holes will allow mosquitoes to enter.
Eliminate standing water around your home in locations such as old tires, cans, poorly kept swimming pools, or any other source where stagnant water accumulates.
For more information on protecting yourself and reducing mosquitoes around your home, visit health.utah.gov/wnv/ .
What is the role of the Division of Wildlife Resources?
In the past, the DWR assisted the Utah Department of Health with collecting dead birds as part of a national West Nile virus early detection program. Now that the virus is well-established in the United States, detection is no longer needed as a surveillance tool.
What do I do if I find a dead bird?
Finding one dead bird is not a cause for concern, and a cluster of sick or dead birds is not an indication of WNV infection. It might, however, the presence of other wildlife diseases of concern. Since West Nile virus is now established in the United States, the DWR no longer collects dead birds for WNV testing.
However, if you live in Salt Lake County, the Salt Lake County Health Department is conducting a research study and might have interest in testing your dead bird. You may contact them at (801) 534-4572.
If you notice several dead birds in a small area, these birds might have picked up parasites or bacteria from a local bird feeder. If you have a bird feeder, please clean your feeder once a month using a 10 percent bleach solution for at least ten minutes, and rinse thoroughly. If large numbers of dead birds suddenly appear in a small area, these birds might have been poisoned. Please contact your regional DWR office to report this.
If you find a dead bird in your yard use standard levels of precaution when handling it. Do not pick up a dead bird with your bare hands. Birds die from a variety of causes, and it is important to be cautious. If possible, wear rubber or latex gloves. If gloves are not available, invert a plastic bag over your hand, pick up the bird and un-invert the bag. Seal the bag with the bird inside, then place inside a second plastic bag. Seal the second plastic bag. If available, Ziploc-type bags work well.